Longboards was created by Preston Nichols in 1940s and 1950s. Now longboards are mostly used in cruising and downhill racing. Also there are "dancing" and "freestyle" longboarding.
Longboards are longer and wider version of skateboards and because of bigger wheels - longboards are much faster. Riding longboard will give you a lot of adrenaline and keep you in a great shape, develop your coordination and deeper muscles. Longboards have a different shapes: fishtail, drop-through, hybrid, cruiser.